Using a Syrian (Golden) Hamster Biological Model for the Evaluation of Recombinant Anthrax Vaccines

In this paper, we demonstrate that a Syrian hamster biological model can be applied to the study of recombinant anthrax vaccines. We show that double vaccination with recombinant proteins, such as protective antigen (PA) and fusion protein LF1PA4, consisting of lethal factor I domain (LF) and PA domain IV, leads to the production of high titers of specific antibodies and to protection from infection with the toxicogenic encapsulated attenuated strain B. anthracis 71/12.
In terms of antibody production and protection, Syrian hamsters were much more comparable to guinea pigs than mice. We believe that Syrian hamsters are still underestimated as a biological model for anthrax research, and, in some cases, they can be used as a replacement or at least as a complement to the traditionally used mouse model.

Vaccination with a Brucella ghost developed through a double inactivation strategy provides protection in Guinea pigs and cattle

Vaccination can prevent and control animal brucellosis. Currently, live attenuated vaccines are extensively used to prevent Brucella infection. However, traditional vaccines such as live attenuated vaccines are associated with biological safety risks for both humans and animals. The bacterial ghost (BG) is a new form of vaccine with great prospects. However, bacterial cells cannot be completely inactivated by biological lysis https://www.joplink.net/guinea-pig-antibodies/, conferring a safety risk associated with the vaccine.
In this study, we developed a Brucella abortus A19 bacterial ghost (A19BG) through a double inactivation strategy with sequential biological lysis and hydrogen peroxide treatment. This strategy resulted in 100% inactivation of Brucella, such that viable bacterial cells were not detected even at an ultrahigh concentration of 1010 colony-forming units/mL. Furthermore, A19BG had a typical BG morphology and good genetic stability. Moreover, it did not induce adverse reactions in guinea pigs.
The levels of antibodies, interferon-γ, interleukin-4, and CD4+ T cells in guinea pigs inoculated with the A19BG vaccine were similar to those inoculated with the existing A19 vaccine. Immunization with A19BG conferred a similar level of protection with that of A19 against Brucella melitensis M28 in both guinea pigs and cattle. In conclusion, the combination of biological lysis and H2O2-mediated inactivation is a safe and effective strategy that can serve as a reference for the preparation of BG vaccines.

Infection and protection responses of deletion mutants of non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype Asia1 in guinea pigs

The development of a negative marker vaccine against the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) will enhance the capabilities to differentiate vaccinated from infected animals and move forward in the progressive control pathway for the control of FMD. Here, we report the development of mutant FMDV of Asia1 with partial deletion of non-structural proteins 3A and 3B and characterization of their infectivity and protection response in the guinea pig model. The deleted FMDV Asia1/IND/63/1972 mutants, pAsiaΔ3A and pAsiaΔ3A3B1 were constructed from the full-length infectious clone pAsiaWT, the viable virus was rescued, and the genetic stability of the mutants was confirmed by 20 monolayer passages in BHK21 cells.
The mutant Asia1 viruses showed comparable growth pattern and infectivity with that of AsiaWT in the cell culture. However, the AsiaΔ3A3B1 virus showed smaller plaque and lower virus titer with reduced infectivity in the suckling mice. In guinea pigs, the AsiaΔ3A3B1 virus failed to induce the disease, whereas the AsiaΔ3A virus induced typical secondary lesions of FMD. Vaccination with inactivated Asia1 mutant viruses induced neutralizing antibody response that was significantly lower than that of the parent virus on day 28 post-vaccination (dpv) in guinea pigs (P < 0.05).
Furthermore, challenging the vaccinated guinea pigs with the homologous vaccine strain of FMDV Asia1 conferred complete protection. It is concluded that the mutant AsiaΔ3A3B1 virus has the potential to replace the wild-type virus for use as a negative marker vaccine after assessing the vaccine worth attributes in suspension cell and protective efficacy study in cattle.Key points• Deletion mutant viruses of FMDV Asia1, developed by PCR-mediated mutagenesis of NSP 3A and 3B1, were genetically stable.• The growth kinetics and antigenic relatedness of the mutant viruses were comparable with that of the wild-type virus.• Vaccination of guinea pigs with the deletion mutant viruses conferred complete protection upon challenge with the homologous virus.

Tick immunity using mRNA, DNA and protein-based Salp14 delivery strategies

Guinea pigs exposed to multiple infestations with Ixodes scapularis ticks develop acquired resistance to ticks, which is also known as tick immunity. The I. scapularis salivary components that contribute to tick immunity are likely multifactorial. An anticoagulant that inhibits factor Xa, named Salp14, is present in tick saliva and is associated with partial tick immunity. A tick bite naturally releases tick saliva proteins into the vertebrate host for several days, which suggests that the mode of antigen delivery may influence the genesis of tick immunity. We therefore utilized Salp14 as a model antigen to examine tick immunity using mRNA lipid nanoparticles (LNPs), plasmid DNA, or recombinant protein platforms.
salp14 containing mRNA-LNPs vaccination elicited erythema at the tick bite site after tick challenge that occurred earlier, and that was more pronounced, compared with DNA or protein immunizations. Humoral and cellular responses associated with tick immunity were directed towards a 25 amino acid region of Salp14 at the carboxy terminus of the protein, as determined by antibody responses and skin-testing assays.
This study demonstrates that the model of antigen delivery, also known as the vaccine platform, can influence the genesis of tick immunity in guinea pigs. mRNA-LNPs may be useful in helping to elicit erythema at the tick bite site, one of the most important early hallmarks of acquired tick resistance. mRNA-LNPs containing tick genes is a useful platform for the development of vaccines that can potentially prevent selected tick-borne diseases.

Characterization of Canine Influenza Virus A (H3N2) Circulating in Dogs in China from 2016 to 2018

Avian H3N2 influenza virus follows cross-host transmission and has spread among dogs in Asia since 2005. After 2015-2016, a new H3N2 subtype canine influenza epidemic occurred in dogs in North America and Asia. The disease prevalence was assessed by virological and serological surveillance in dogs in China.
Herein, five H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) strains were isolated from 1185 Chinese canine respiratory disease samples in 2017-2018; these strains were on the evolutionary branch of the North American CIVs after 2016 and genetically far from the classical canine H3N2 strain discovered in China before 2016. Serological surveillance showed an HI antibody positive rate of 6.68%. H3N2 was prevalent in the coastal areas and northeastern regions of China. In 2018, it became the primary epidemic strain in the country.
The QK01 strain of H3N2 showed high efficiency in transmission among dogs through respiratory droplets. Nevertheless, the virus only replicated in the upper respiratory tract and exhibited low pathogenicity in mice. Furthermore, highly efficient transmission by direct contact other than respiratory droplet transmission was found in a guinea pig model.
The low-level replication in avian species other than ducks could not facilitate contact and airborne transmission in chickens. The current results indicated that a novel H3N2 virus has become a predominant epidemic strain in dogs in China since 2016 and acquired highly efficient transmissibility but could not be replicated in avian species. Thus, further monitoring is required for designing optimal immunoprophylactic tools for dogs and estimating the zoonotic risk of CIV in China.

Hemoglobin Antibody

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  • 100ug
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Hemoglobin Antibody

  • 317.00 EUR
  • 335.00 EUR
  • 100ug
  • 50ug

Hemoglobin Antibody

  • 317.00 EUR
  • 335.00 EUR
  • 100ug
  • 50ug

Hemoglobin Antibody

  • 317.00 EUR
  • 335.00 EUR
  • 100ug
  • 50ug

Hemoglobin Antibody

  • 317.00 EUR
  • 335.00 EUR
  • 100ug
  • 50ug

Hemoglobin Antibody

1 mg 537 EUR

Hemoglobin Antibody

1 mg 537 EUR

Hemoglobin antibody

1 mg 181 EUR

Hemoglobin antibody

1 mg 148 EUR

Hemoglobin antibody

1 mg 181 EUR